From its twofold existence and two-fold knowledge springs a multiplicity of knowledge and existence. The champions of the modern movement of religious empiricism, on the one hand, and that of logical positivism, on the other, paradoxical though it may seem, would equally find comfort in his works.
One may be tempted to say that his keenly alert and sensitive mind, though, exposed from early youth to all the various intellectual and spiritual movements of the times such as scholasticism, rationalism, mysticism, etc.
This is a rounded though brief description of the emanationistic world-view so enthusiastically elaborated by the Muslim philosophers, by ibn Sina, for example, in both of his major works on philosophy, viz. As a corollary they believed in the infinity of time. Apparently, he attained to all the glory that a scholar could by way of worldly success, but inwardly he began to undergo an intellectual and spiritual crisis.
There was not a philosopher whose system I did not acquaint myself with, nor a theologian whose doctrines I did not examine. His restless soul had always been trying to reach for what it had not attained. Further, both will and knowledge are limitations: Hence the subject of possibility is some substratum which is susceptible of possibility, and this is matter.
No eye can perceive the movement of a shadow, still the shadow moves; a small coin would cover any star yet the geometrical computations show that a star is a world vastly larger than the earth. Some of them assert after Aristotle that God is the knower, the knowledge, and the known, and that the three are one.
Hence matter is eternal and it is only the passing over of the forms to matter which is originated. Even an insane person could not rest satisfied with such postulates. Creation through an act of volition implies both will and knowledge, and these cannot be predicated of God as attributes apart from His essence without doing violence to His absolute unity.
God, according to them, possesses the knowledge of all the universals without this knowledge necessitating plurality, without its being additional to His essence, and without its multiplying in proportion to the multiplicity of the objects known. Now there are, according to the then current Ptolemaic system, only nine celestial spheres in all including the sphere of the fixed stars all in concentric circles with earth in the centre.
These had to be interpreted intrinsically and reckoned on their own grounds. He had least hesitation in accepting as true much of what the philosophers taught with regard to their sciences of mathematics, logic, and physics; he even had no serious quarrel with them in the spheres of politics and ethics.
The assumptions of the philosophers, that every effect has a cause and that a cause is a force external to its effect, do not have a logical coerciveness about them. He was not at all against philosophical investigation as such. Its existence is possible in itself and necessary through the First Principle; further, it knows its own essence as well as the essence of the First Principle.
The Muslim philosophers had failed to take this empirical standpoint. In the second place I ought to recognize that certitude is the clear and complete knowledge of things, such knowledge as leaves no room for doubt, nor any possibility of error.
The first intelligence, in fact, has three kinds of knowledge: The faulty reasonings of the philosophers or the inconsistencies in their positions are remediable but not so the uncritical acceptance of their assumptions. Can the relation between two existents qua existents be regarded as a causal one.
But the human soul does not feel at home in its physical abode and yearns for nothing less than the First Principle Himself. The disputes of the scholastics amongst themselves he considered as mere dialectical logomachies which had no real relation with religious life.
Only he was dissatisfied with the scholastic method of the theologians, for it could not bring any intellectual certainty; their doctrines, he deemed, however, to be correct. And truth is dear, too. Reason was good so far as it went, but it could not go very far.
Now, its knowledge of its principle is evidently necessary, although this necessity is not derived from that principle. Whatever he thought and wrote came with the living reality of his own experience.
In his works on philosophy one is struck by a keen philosophical acumen and penetration with which he gives a clear and readable exposition of the views of the philosophers, the subtlety and analyticity with which he criticizes them, and the candour and open-mindedness with which he accepts them whenever he finds them to be true.
His restless soul had always been trying to reach for what it had not attained. His belief in God, Prophecy, and Last Judgment were too deeply rooted in him to be shaken altogether; his scepticism with regard to them, if at all, was a temporary phase; he only very much desired a confirmation of these fundamental beliefs either on some philosophical grounds or through some sort of first-hand experience.
His belief in God, Prophecy, and Last Judgment were too deeply rooted in him to be shaken altogether; his scepticism with regard to them, if at all, was a temporary phase; he only very much desired a confirmation of these fundamental beliefs either on some philosophical grounds or through some sort of first-hand experience.
God, for example, can eternally will that Socrates and Plato should be born at such and such a time and that the one should be born before the other. Jul 22, · Earlier this year, the realms of law and new media collided when Lori Drew was hit with federal charges for creating a fake MySpace page and harassing a.
A History of Muslim Philosophy Part 4. The Middle-Roaders Chapter XXX AL-GHAZ ĀLĪTable of Contents: Metaphysics.
Life. Method. Attack on the Philosophers. A History of Muslim Philosophy Part 4. The Middle-Roaders Chapter XXX AL-GHAZ ĀLĪTable of Contents: Metaphysics.
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